Prejudecarea de a-i place / iubi: de ce ne conformam cu cei pe care ii iubim

Deciziile pe care le luam sunt rareori impartiale. Majoritatea dintre noi stim deja ca preferam sa luam sfaturi de la oamenii care ne plac. De asemenea, tindem sa fim de acord  mai usor  cu opiniile formate din oameni care ne plac. Tendinta de a judeca in favoarea oamenilor si a simbolurilor care ne plac este numita partinirea de a placea sau a iubi. matrimoniale femei calarasi www.9millimeter.com

Suntem mai predispusi sa ignoram greselile si sa ne conformam dorintelor prietenilor sau iubitorilor nostri decat decat straini aleatori. Favorizam oamenii, produsele si actiunile asociate cu celebritatile noastre preferate. Uneori chiar denaturam fapte pentru a facilita dragostea. Influenta pe care prietenii, parintii, iubitii si idolii o exercita asupra noastra poate fi enorma. tryme matrimoniale portlandinternationalairportnoise.net

In general, acesta este un lucru bun, o partinire care adauga echilibru, mai degraba decat scade. Ne ajuta sa formam relatii de succes, ne ajuta sa ne indragostim (si sa ramanem indragostiti), ne ajuta sa formam atasamente cu altii care ne ofera o fericire mare.

Vrem insa sa fim constienti de locul in care aceasta tendinta ne conduce.

De exemplu, unele persoane si companii au invatat sa foloseasca aceasta influenta in avantajul lor. site-uri de socializare matrimoniale maps.google.co.ug

In bestsellerul sau despre psihologia sociala Influenta, Robert Cialdini spune o poveste despre strategia de succes a Tupperware, care la acea vreme raporta vanzari de peste 2,5 milioane de dolari pe zi.

Dupa cum stim multi dintre noi, compania si-a vandut de mult timp ustensilele de bucatarie la petrecerile aruncate de prietenii potentialilor clienti. La fiecare petrecere, exista un reprezentant Tupperware care lua comenzi, dar gazda, prietena invitatilor, a primit un comision.

Acesti clienti potentiali nu sunt orbi de stimulentele si presiunile sociale implicate. matrimoniale casatorie femei botosani smallfoundation.org Unii dintre ei nu le deranjeaza, altii o fac, dar toti recunosc un anumit grad de neputinta in situatia lor. Cialdini isi aminteste o conversatie cu unul dintre oaspetii frustrati:

S-a ajuns acum la punctul in care urasc sa fiu invitat la petrecerile Tupperware. Am toate containerele de care am nevoie; si daca as mai dori, as putea cumpara un alt brand mai ieftin din magazin. Dar cand suna un prieten, simt ca trebuie sa plec. anunturi matrimoniale prestari servicii 3en.ali88.com



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Si cand ajung acolo, simt ca trebuie sa cumpar ceva. Ce pot sa fac? Este pentru unul dintre prietenii mei.

Avem mai multe sanse sa cumparam intr-un cadru familiar, prietenos si sub obligatia prieteniei, decat dintr-un magazin sau un catalog necunoscut. Pur si simplu ne este mult mai greu sa spunem „nu” sau sa nu fim de acord cand este prieten. anunturi matrimoniale poze www.hentainiches.com Posibilitatea de a distruge prietenia sau de a ne vedea imaginea modificata in ochii cuiva care ne place, este un motivator puternic de respectat.

Exemplul Tupperware este un adevarat „ lollapalooza ” in favoarea manipularii oamenilor pentru a cumpara lucruri. In afara de tendinta de placere, exista si alti cativa factori in joc: partinirea angajamentului / consecventei, partinirea de la stres, influenta autoritatii, efectul de reciprocitate si unele stimulente directe si dezincentive, cel putin! ( Lollapaloozas, despre care vom vorbi mai mult in viitor, sunt atunci cand mai multe forte puternice se combina pentru a crea un rezultat neliniar. O modalitate buna de a gandi acest lucru conceptual deocamdata este ca 1 + 1 = 3. matrimoniale in italia www.schoolawardribbons.com )

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Tendinta de placere este atat de puternica incat se intinde dincolo de prietenii stranse. Se dovedeste ca avem si mai multe sanse sa actionam in favoarea anumitor tipuri de straini.

Va puteti aminti sa intalniti pe cineva cu care l-ati lovit instantaneu, unde aproape pareati ca i-ati cunoscut de ani de zile dupa o conversatie de 20 de minute? Dezvoltarea unei astfel de legaturi instantanee cu un strain poate parea un proces mitic, dar rareori este. Exista mai multe tactici care pot fi folosite pentru a ne face ca ceva, sau cu cineva, mai mult decat am face altfel. anunturi matrimoniale viata libera galati www.rainin-group.com

Aspectul si efectul Halo



Tuturor ne place sa ne implicam in activitati cu oameni frumosi. Aceasta face parte dintr-o prejudecata automata care se incadreaza intr-o categorie numita Efectul Halo.

Efectul Halo apare atunci cand o caracteristica specifica, pozitiva, determina modul in care o persoana este privita de catre alte persoane asupra altor trasaturi fara legatura . In cazul frumusetii, s-a demonstrat ca atribuim in mod automat trasaturi favorabile, dar fara legatura, precum talentul, bunatatea, onestitatea si inteligenta, cu cele pe care le consideram atractive din punct de vedere fizic. matrimoniale publicitate 24 www.academy-of-art-universitystudent.biz

In mare parte, aceasta atributie se intampla neobservata. De exemplu, candidatii atragatori au primit mai mult de doua ori mai multe voturi decat candidatii neatractivi la alegerile federale canadiene din 1974. In ciuda numeroaselor dovezi de predispozitie catre politicieni frumosi, cercetarile ulterioare au demonstrat ca aproape trei sferturi din canadienii chestionati au negat puternic influenta aspectului fizic in deciziile de votare.

Puterea efectului Halo este ca se intampla mai ales sub nivelul constiintei. matrimoniale 3 ro powengineeringinc.com



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Fortele similare sunt in joc atunci cand vine vorba de decizii de angajare si plata. In timp ce angajatorii neaga ca sunt puternic influentati de aspect, studiile arata altfel.

Intr-un studiu care evalueaza deciziile de angajare bazate pe interviuri simulate, pregatirea solicitantilor a jucat un rol mai mare in rezultat decat calificarile la locul de munca. Partial, aceasta are o baza rationala. pub matrimoniale avantium-technologies.com Am putea presupune ca cineva care se prezinta fara „aspectul” corespunzator pentru locul de munca poate fi deficitar in alte domenii. Daca nu s-au putut barbierit si ar putea lega, cum sa ne asteptam sa faca performanta cu clientii? Totusi, partial, se intampla subconstient. Chiar daca nu ne spunem niciodata in mod constient ca „Ingrijire mai buna = angajat mai bun”, avem tendinta de a actiona astfel in angajarea noastra.

Aceste efecte depasesc chiar si faza de angajare – s-a estimat ca persoanele atractive din SUA si Canada castiga in medie cu 12-14% mai mult decat colegii lor neatractivi. matrimoniale cu tel supergriptires.com Este dificil de spus daca acest lucru se datoreaza partinirilor de gust sau poate cresterii increderii in sine care rezulta din aspectele peste medie.

Aspectul nu este singura calitate care ne poate raspunde perceptiile in favoarea cuiva. Urmatorul din lista este similaritatea.

Similitudine

Ne plac oamenii care seamana cu noi. oferte matrimoniale turda splicedbread.com Fie ca este vorba de aspect, opinii, stil de viata sau de fond, tindem sa favorizam persoanele care, pe o anumita dimensiune, sunt cele mai asemanatoare cu noi.

Un mare exemplu de partinire de asemanare este cazul rochiei. Ati fost vreodata la un eveniment in care v-ati simtit in afara locului, deoarece ati fost suprasolicitat sau subdresati? Sentimentele nelinistite nu sunt cauzate doar de imaginatia ta. Numeroase studii sugereaza ca avem mai multe sanse sa facem favoruri, cum ar fi sa acordam un ban sau sa semneze o petitie cuiva care pare ca noi. matrimoniale casatorii femei galati thedraxgroup.com

Pregatirea de asemanare se poate extinde chiar si la astfel de trasaturi ambigue precum interesele si fundalul. Multi vanzatori sunt instruiti sa caute asemanari pentru a produce o imagine favorabila si de incredere in ochii potentialilor clienti.

In Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, Robert Cialdini explica:

Daca exista un echipament de camping in portbagaj, vanzatorii ar putea mentiona, ulterior, cum le place sa se indeparteze de oras ori de cate ori pot; daca pe bancheta din spate exista mingi de golf, s-ar putea sa remarce ca spera ca ploaia va tine pana cand pot juca cele optsprezece gauri pe care le-au programat mai tarziu in zi; daca observa ca autoturismul a fost cumparat in afara statului, s-ar putea sa intrebe de unde este un client si sa raporteze – cu surprindere – ca si ei (sau sotul / sotia lor) s-au nascut acolo.

Acestea sunt doar cateva dintre multe exemple care pot fi surprinzator de eficiente in producerea unui dulce sentiment de familiaritate. matrimoniale romania.ro tampacriminals.com



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Studii multiple ilustreaza acelasi tipar. Hotaram sa completam sondajele de la persoane cu nume similare, sa cumparam asigurari de la agenti de varsta similara si obiceiuri de fumat si chiar sa decidem ca cei care ne impartasesc opiniile politice merita tratamentul lor medical mai devreme decat restul.

Exista o singura plata: chiar daca asemanarile sunt teribil de superficiale, am putea totusi sa-i placa celuilalt mai mult decat ar trebui.

„Si ce va veni un barbat in mod natural sa-i placa si sa iubeasca, in afara de parintele, sotia si copilul sau? Ei bine, ii va placea si iubeste sa fie iubit si iubit. publi.ro matrimoniale magazines.net.au

– Charlie Munger

Lauda si complimente

We are all phenomenal suckers for flattery. These are not my words, but words of Robert Cialdini and they ring a bell. Perhaps, more than anything else in this world we love to be loved and, consequently, we love those that love us.

Consider the technique of Joe Girard, who has been continuously called the world’s “greatest car salesman” and has made it to the Guinness World Record book. anunturi piatra neamt matrimoniale superiorenterprises.biz

Each month Joe prints and sends over 13,000 holiday cards to his former customers. While the theme of the card varies depending on the season and celebration, the printed message always remains the same. On each of those cards Girard prints three simple words ”I like you” and his name. He explains:

“There’s nothing else on the card, nothin’ but my name. matrimoniale elvetia barbati anderssondyke.com I’m just telling ’em that I like ’em.” “I like you.” It came in the mail every year, 12 times a year, like clockwork.

Joe understood a simple fact about humans – we love to be loved. anunturi pascani matrimoniale internationalstemcellresearch.com

As numerous experiments show, regardless of whether the praise is deserved or not, we cannot help but develop warm feelings to those that provide it. Our reaction can be so automatic, that we develop liking even when the attempt to win our favor is an obvious one, as in the case of Joe.

Familiarity

In addition to liking those that like us and look like us, we also tend to like those who we know.



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That’s why repeated exposure can be a powerful tool in establishing liking. matrimoniale corabia olt webmd2ndopinion.com

There is a fun experiment you can do to understand the power of familiarity.

Take a picture of yourself and create a mirror image in one of the editing tools. Now with the two pictures at hand decide which one – the real or the mirror image you like better. Show the two pictures to a friend and ask her to choose the better one as well. matrimoniale 60 ani www.odeki.de

If you and your friend are like the group on whom this trick was tried, you should notice something odd. Your friend will prefer the true print, whereas you will think you look better in the mirror image. This is because you both prefer the faces you are used to. Your friend always sees you from her perspective, whereas you have learned to recognize and love your mirror image. matrimoniale femei singure bacau elbowroom101.net

The effect, of course, extends beyond faces into places, names, and even ideas.

For example, in elections, we might prefer candidates whose names sound more familiar. The Ohio Attorney-General post was claimed by a man who, shortly before his candidacy, changed his last name to Brown – a family name of Ohio political tradition. Apart from his surname, there was little to nothing that separated him from other equally if not more capable candidates. matrimoniale barbati vaslui www.baghdadairport.com

How could such a thing happen? The answer lies partly in the unconscious way that familiarity affects our liking. Often we don’t realize that our attitude toward something has been influenced by the number of times we have been exposed to it in the past.

Loving by Association and Referral

Charisma or attraction are not prerequisites for liking — a mere association with someone you like or trust can be enough.

The bias from association shows itself in many other domains and is especially strong when we associate with the person we like the most — ourselves. site matrimoniale franta explainthebrain.com For example, the relationship between a sports fan and his local team can be highly personal even though the association is often based only on shared location. For the fan, however, the team is an important part of his self-identity. If the team or athlete wins, he wins as well, which is why sports can be so emotional.



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The most dedicated fans are ready to get into fights, burn cars or even kill to defend the honor of their team. cel mai mare site matrimoniale 9r.dspineinstitute.com Such associated sense of pride and achievement is as true for celebrities as it is for sports.

When Kevin Costner delivered his acceptance speech after winning the best picture award for Dances With Wolves, he said:

“While it may not be as important as the rest of the world situation, it will always be important to us. My family will never forget what happened here; my Native American brothers and sisters, especially the Lakota Sioux, will never forget, and the people I went to high school with will never forget.”

The interesting part of his words is the notion that his high school peers will remember, which is probably true. His former classmates are likely to tell people that they went to school with Costner, even though they themselves had no connection with the success of the movie.

Costner’s words illustrate that even a trivial association with success may reap benefits and breed confidence.

Who else do we like besides ourselves, celebrities and our sports teams?

People we’ve met through those who are close to us – our neighbors, friends, and family. It is common sense that a referral from someone we trust is enough to trigger mild liking and favorable initial opinions.

There are a number of companies that use friend referral as a sales tactic. Network providers, insurers, and other subscription services offer a number of benefits for those of us who give away our friends’ contact details.

The success of this method rests on the implicit idea that turning down the sales rep who says “your friend Jenny/Allan suggested I call you” feels nearly as bad as turning down Jenny or Allan themselves. This tactic, when well executed, leads to a never-ending chain of new customers.

Can We Avoid Liking?

Perhaps the right question to ask here is not “how can we avoid the bias from liking”, but when should we?

Someone who is conditioned to like the right people and pick their idols carefully can greatly benefit from these biases. In his famous talk, The Psychology of Human Misjudgment, Charlie Munger recalls that both he and Warren Buffett benefitted from liking admirable persons:

One common, beneficial example for us both was Warren’s uncle, Fred Buffett, who cheerfully did the endless grocery-store work that Warren and I ended up admiring from a safe distance. Even now, after I have known so many other people, I doubt if it is possible to be a nicer man than Fred Buffett was, and he changed me for the better.

The keywords here are “from a safe distance”.

If dealing with salesmen and others who clearly benefit from your liking, it might be a good idea to check whether you have been influenced. In these unclear cases, Cialdini advises us to focus on our feelings rather than the other person’s actions that may produce liking. Ask yourself how much of what you feel is due to liking versus the actual facts of the situation.

The time to call out the defense is when we feel ourselves liking the practitioner more than we should under the circumstances when we feel manipulated.

Once we have recognized that we like the requester more than we would expect under the given circumstances, we should take a step back and question ourselves. Are you doing the deal because you like someone or is it because it is indeed the best option out there?

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Still Interested? Follow this up with the bias from disliking and hating.